References

All photographs and illustrations are copyright © by their respective sources.

Usage Guidelines

References

The Earth

Earth background, NASA;

1,000 Years of Carbon Emissions

ACIA, Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.
Cambridge University Press, 2004;

800,000 years of carbon dioxide levels

Data taken from EPICA dataset, EPICA Dome C ice core, plus other cores.

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations

Dr. Pieter Tans, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/;

2,000 Years of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: Working Group I; Power plant, US Department of Energy (DOE);

Greenhouse Gas Release from a Warming Arctic

Joshua Weybright

Global temperature and CO2

Global temperature and CO2, NOAA/National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), 2010; Arctic Sea Ice Extent, September, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio;

Observed Temperature Increase from 1880 to 2003

Observed temperature increase, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS);

Fewer Cold Nights and Days

Fewer cold nights and cold days, More warm nights and hot days, IPCC AR4 WG1 FAQ 3.3 Fig 1 (Adapted from Alexander et al. (2006));

More Warm Nights and Hot Days

Fewer cold nights and cold days, More warm nights and hot days, IPCC AR4 WG1 FAQ 3.3 Fig 1 (Adapted from Alexander et al. (2006));

Summer 2003 Heatwave in Europe

Summer 2003 heatwave in Europe, NASA, Image courtesy Reto Stockli and Robert Simmon, based upon data provided by the MODIS Land Science Team;

Drought Has Increased Globally from 1900 to 2002

Drought has increased globally from 1900 to 2002, IPCC AR4 WG1 FAQ 3.2 Fig 1 (Adapted from Dai et al. (2004b);

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Melt Extent

Greenland ice sheet surface melt extent, September, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio; Surface meltwater on the Greenland Ice Sheet, Roger Braithwaite;

Muir Glacier, Alaska

Muir Glacier, United States Geological Survey (USGS) W.O. Field 1941, B.F. Molnia 2004; Global Glacier Ice Decline, Meier et al;

Global Average Sea-level Rise

Muir Glacier, United States Geological Survey (USGS) W.O. Field 1941, B.F. Molnia 2004; Global Glacier Ice Decline, Meier et al; Global Average Sea-level Rise, IPCC;

Separating Human and Natural Influences on Climate

Separating human and natural influences on climate, Hegerl et al; Increasing temperature, Clifford Grabhorn; Increasing atmospheric moisture, Paul Grabhorn; Changing precipitation patterns, IPCC 2007: WG1-AR4; Declining Arctic sea ice extent, NASA/GSFC

Key Warming and Cooling Influences

Key warming and cooling influences, adapted from GISS; Greenhouse gases photo, Sun photo, Shutterstock Images LLC/Keith Tarrier; Volcano photo, iStockphoto LP/JochenScheffl; Satellite photo, NASA;

1998 El Niño

1998 El Niño, NASA/GSFC;

Volcanic Eruptions and Global Average Temperature

Volcanic eruptions and global average temperature, IPCC

Surface Temperature Change and Sun's Energy

IPCC; Surface temperature change and Sun's energy, NOAA/NCDC;

Surface Temperature Change and Suns Energy

Volcano, iStockphoto LP/jgroup

Spruce Bark Beetle Damage in Alaska

Spruce tree photo, Beetle photo, The National Agricultural Library Special Collections; Spruce bark beetle damage in Alaska, US Forest Service (USFS) / The State and Private Forestry (S&PF)

Ice Core Photo

Ice core photo, USGS, Eric Cravens, Assistant Curator, National Ice Core Lab; 100,000 years of temperature variation in Greenland, ACIA;

100,000 Years of Temperature Variation in Greenland

100,000 years of temperature variation in Greenland, ACIA;

Two Possible Futures

Two possible futures, based on IPCC; Thermometer, Shutterstock Images LLC;

Observed Temperature Increase from 1880 to 2003

Observed temperature increase, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio;

Projected Temperature Increase under a High Emission Scenario (A2)

Projected temperature increase under a high emission scenario, IPCC; Permafrost thaws, Paul Grabhorn; Glaciers melt, Paul Grabhorn; Drought increases, Shutterstock Images LLC/Matt Niebuhr; Fire increases, iStockphoto LP/milehigh- traveler; Pests expand, (see page 1); Diseases increase, Paul Grabhorn; Snow cover declines, Paul Grabhorn; Forests change, iStockphoto LP/Veni; Famine spreads, Paul Grabhorn; Refugees increase, Paul Grabhorn; Agriculture changes, Paul Grabhorn; Species decline, Paul Grabhorn; Ecosystems shift, Paul Grabhorn; Storms intensify, Paul Grabhorn; Sea-level rises, Stanilas Ogorodov, Moscow University; Flooding increases, Paul Grabhorn;

Current Population Density and Projected Precipitation

Observed temperature increase, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio;

21st Century Spring Precipitation Projection

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

Projected Changes in Agricultural Productivity – 2080

Projected changes in agricultural productivity, Cline, W. R. 2007. Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country. Washington D.C., USA: Peterson Institute;

Percent of Summers Hotter than the Hottest on Record

Percent of summers hotter than the hottest on record, Battisti et al.; Fishing, Paul Grabhorn; Farming, Garry Weybright; Cattle, Shutterstock Images LLC/urosr;

Inundation with 1m Sea-level Rise

Locator globe, NASA; Inundation with 1m sea-level rise, Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS); Population density,

Islands at Risk

Background map, Clifford Grabhorn; Inset flooded areas, CReSIS

Climate Change Effects on Human Health

Graphic adapted from Borowski, 2008; Background photo, NASA; Civil conflict, Paul Grabhorn; Storms and flooding, (top) Shutterstock Images LLC/canebisca, (left) Shutterstock Images LLC/Caitlin Mirra, (right) Shutterstock Images LLC/pinecone; Disease transmission, (top) Shutterstock Images LLC/Rui Saraiva, (bottom) Shutterstock Images LLC/Michael Pettigrew; Heat (top, see page 25), (bottom, see page 31); Air pollutants, (top) JUPITERIMAGES bxp40007, (bottom) Shutterstock Images LLC/Diego Cervo; Food supply, (top) Shutterstock Images LLC/Pack-Shot, (left) Shutterstock Images LLC/Adrian Lindley, (right) Garry Weybright; Displacement, (left) Shutterstock Images LLC/Cyrus J Cornell, (right) Shutterstock Images LLC/Robert A. Mansker; Infectious disease, Shutterstock Images LLC/Andre Nantel; Respiratory disease, Shutterstock Images LLC/wavebreak media ltd; Malnutrition, Paul Grabhorn; Illness, injury and death (left) Shutterstock Images LLC/Dee Golden, (right) Shutterstock Images LLC/Lisa F. Young;

Harlequin Frog

Harlequin frog, Shutterstock Images LLC/Anyka;

Endangered Arctic Ecosystems

Penguin, Shutterstock Images LLC/Armin Rose; Chicks, Shutterstock Images LLC/Darren Turner;

Projected Ocean acidification with Rising CO₂

Ocean pH change, Caldeira, 2008;

Increasing Carbon Dioxide Causes Ocean Acidification

How ocean acidification works, Joshua Weybright; Corals weaken, Shellfish decline, Shutterstock Images LLC/Radu Razvan; Pteropod, Russ Hopcroft, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF)/NOAA;

Solar Panels

Solar panel photos (2), Randy Udall;

Farmer Photo

Farmer photo, Sören Hermansen;

Thisted, Denmark

Thisted map, NASA, Denmark map, Shutterstock Images LLC/Volina; Pipeline information, climate.thisted.dk; Globe, NASA

Solar Power

Solar power, Shutterstock Images LLC/Morten Kjerulff;

RapeSeed for Biomass Power

Rapeseed for biomass power, Shutterstock Images LLC/David Máška;

Wind Power

Windpower, iStockphoto LP/PARETO;

Royal Dutch Shell

Greenhouse gas emissions, Shell Sustainability Report 2008;

Countries Take Action

Background map, Clifford Grabhorn; Energy efficiency, Shutterstock Images LLC/Lisa F. Young; Preservation, Shutterstock Images LLC/Antonio Jorge Nunes; Geothermal, Shutterstock Images LLC/corepics; Forest protection, Shutterstock Images LLC/Frontpage; Renewables, Shutterstock Images LLC/Philip Lange; Low carbon, Shutterstock Images LLC/Buquet Christophe; Soil conservation; Shutterstock Images LLC/thefinalmiracle; Passivhaus, Wikimedia Commons/Passivhaus Institut; Solar, JUPITERIMAGES bxp40015;

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning and Consumption for 2008

Greenhouse gas emissions, Shell Sustainability Report 2008;

Dividing the Global Carbon "Budget"

Greenhouse gas emissions, Shell Sustainability Report 2008;

Where Greenhouse Gas Emissions Come From

Where greenhouse gas emissions come from, based on World Resources Institute (WRI); Background composite image by Joshua Weybright from Shutterstock images by: Ben Heys, GoodMood Photo, Kitch Bain, and Ferenz; Traffic, Shutterstock Images LLC/Felix Mizioznikov; Powerplant cooling towers, Shutterstock Images LLC/Danicek; Residences, Shutterstock Images LLC/Steve Rosset; Industrial tanks, Shutterstock Images LLC/Christian Lagerek; Gas flaring, Shutterstock Images LLC/Ingvar Tjostheim; Deforestation, Shutterstock Images LLC/Frontpage; Fertiliser use, Shutterstock Images LLC; Landfills, Shutterstock Images LLC/J. Breedlove;

Efficiency

Carbon emissions graph, based on IPCC; Commercial building, Shutterstock Images LLC/PhotoFixPics; Residential building, Shutterstock Images LLC/Hannamariah; Refrigerator, (see page 45); Power lines, Shutterstock Images LLC/TebNad; High speed train, Shutterstock Images LLC; Electric Car, Shutterstock Images LLC/Michael Shake; Insulation installer,

Carbon Emissions by Fuel

Carbon emissions by fuel graph,; Oil pump, Shutterstock Images LLC/Wade H. Massie; Coal, Shutterstock Images LLC/abutyrin; Natural gas tanker; Shutterstock Images LLC/Oleksandr Kalinichenko

Low Carbon Energy

Carbon emissions graph, based on IPCC; Windmills, JUPITERIMAGES bxp40017; Powerplant cooling towers, Shutterstock Images LLC/Nobor; Solar installer, Shutterstock Images LLC/John Keith; Rooftop solar thermal, Shutterstock Images LLC/Adem Demir; Concentrated solar power, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Hydroelectric dam, Shutterstock Images LLC/Bryan Busovicki; Geothermal plant, Shutterstock Images LLC/Tupungato;

Deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil

Deforestation in Rondonia, Brazil, USGS/NASA;

Land Use

Carbon emissions graph, based on IPCC; Tree cutting, Shutterstock Images LLC/David Maixner; Rice planting, Shutterstock Images LLC/David Mckee; Open pit mine, Shutterstock Images LLC/Lee Prince; Planting tree, Shutterstock Images LLC/Christina Richards; Deforestation, Shutterstock Images LLC/Frontpage; Cattle, Shutterstock Images LLC/Martin Muránsky; Plowing field; Shutterstock Images LLC/Bram van Broekhoven;

Effect of Delay

Effect of delay, German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) 2009;

Stabilizing Climate at Zero Net Cost

Money saved/spent, Adapted with changes, from McKinsey & Company, Pathways to a Low-Carbon Economy. Version 2 of the Global Gas Abatement Cost Curve, 2009; Insulation, iStockphoto LP/sjlocke; Traffic, Paul Grabhorn; Commercial transportation, iStockphoto LP/The-Tor; Water heating, Shutterstock Images LLC/Gordan; Feedstock substitution, JUPITERIMAGES bxp40013; Wind, Shutterstock Images LLC/Brian A Jackson; Forestation, iStockphoto LP/Rolling Earth; Carbon capture and storage (new coal) EPRI, Avoided deforestation, (see page 25); Motor systems, DOE; Coal retrofit, DOE/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL);

U.S. Research and Development Spending

US research and development spending; National Science Foundation (NSF) Data table 36. Federal research and development obligations, budget authority, and budget authority for basic research, by budget function: FY 1955– 2009;

Solar Cost Reductions

Solar cost reductions, European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) and A.T. Kearny. SET for 2020. Published 2009.